( ˈtʃɛka) n. (Historical Terms) Russian history the secret police set up in 1917 by the Bolshevik government: reorganized in the Soviet Union in Dec 1922 as the GPU. The name of the agency was originally "The All-Russian Emergency Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage"(Russian: Всероссийская чрезвычайная комиссия по борьбе с контрреволюцией и саботажем; Vserossiyskaya chrezvychaynaya komissiya po bor'bye s kontrrevolyutsiyei i sabotazhem), but was often shortened to "Cheka" or "VCheka". What is the meaning/definition of the acronym CHEKA? Its first leader was Polish aristocrat-turned-communist Felix Dzerzhinsky. In the lead up to the October Revolution, he became one of Lenin’s most trusted lieutenants. became politically radicalized after his older brother was executed in 1887 for plotting to assassinate Czar Alexander III 2. “Its original mandate was to root out the regime’s enemies: the counter-revolutionaries and saboteurs, enemy agents and speculators. History. Russian history. Juni 2020 um 20:41 Uhr bearbeitet. [6] The term is still found in use in Russia today. Date published: August 10, 2019 Official government figures suggest that just over 12,000 people were killed by Chekists in 1918-20. Cheka definition is - secret police (as in a Communist-dominated country) having virtually unrestrained power over life and death. They used these to extract information or occasionally to create a public deterrent. With this free rein, Cheka agents were able to persecute, detain, torture and summarily execute thousands of suspected spies, tsarists, counter-revolutionaries, kulaks, black marketeers and other ‘enemies of the state’. Cheka. By 1919, the Cheka employed more than 100,000 people and was one of the largest and best-funded agencies of the Soviet state. The Cheka is sometimes referred to as the Bolshevik ‘secret police’, though most Russians were well aware of its existence and activities. In its first two years, the Cheka executed 900 people suspected of trading on the black market. The decree ordered the formation of the “All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage”. The Cheka (a forerunner of the notorious KGB), or political police, was formed in December 1917 to protect communist power. This infuriated Dzerzhinsky, who queried how it was possible for him to “crush counter-revolution with legal niceties”. Dzerzhinsky was loyal to the point of fanaticism and had been hardened by years of imprisonment. The full name of the Cheka in 1918 was (in Russian) the "All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution, Profiteering and Corruption". The decree forming the Cheka was broadly worded and contained few specific instructions about how it should operate. Copyright © HarperCollins Publishers. Cheka Definition. Collins English Dictionary. At first, the Cheka was small and its operations were limited. Publically gives the Cheka the right to deal with 'enemy agents, profiteers, marauders, hooligans, counter rev agitators and German spies' without going through the courtds.--> One day later 'saboteurs and other parasites is added' whom the Chekha should 'shoot on the spot' At the point of the Feb 21st 1918 document did would Cheka agents have an exact idea of who they were to target? Cheka (Russian) n (Russian history) the secret police set up in 1917 by the Bolshevik government: reorganized in the Soviet Union in Dec. 1922 as the GPU (C20: from Russian, acronym of Chrezvychainaya Komissiya Extraordinary Commission (to combat Counter … By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Cheka agents operated on their own accord, carrying out arrests, detention and executions. This site is created and maintained by Alpha History. The Cheka became a model for 20th century secret police agencies in totalitarian states, including the Gestapo (Nazi Germany), the Stasi (East Germany) and the KGB (Soviet Russia). As opposition to the Bolshevik regime grew through 1918, so did the size and power of the Cheka. Written records of these methods were not kept so they are anecdotally based and possibly prone to exaggeration or falsification. What does cheka mean? Make sure you have a side on you, do not be shy to show it. The Cheka is sometimes referred to as the Bolshevik ‘secret police’, though most Russians were well aware of its existence and activities. His ruthlessness and fanaticism came to rival that of Lenin. It surrounded villages and short peasants resisting the forced requisitions of grain, often leaving the peasants who remained alive without enough to eat. It even suppressed strikes by factory workers, the presumed rulers of the ‘workers’ state’.” By the end of the Civil War the Cheka had become a powerful force. Born in Poland in 1877, Dzerzhinsky’s family were wealthy landed gentry with claims to a noble title. History definition is - tale, story. What are synonyms for Cheka? It was active in assuring the food supply, in maintaining transport, in policing the Red Army and Navy, in monitoring the schools, and in ensuring that industries continued to function and deliver essential material to the state. Cheka Secret Police synonyms, Cheka Secret Police pronunciation, Cheka Secret Police translation, English dictionary definition of Cheka Secret Police. Suttas (sutras) from the Tipitaka (Tripitaka) in Pali, Chinese, Sanskrit, and Tibetan with the Buddha's teachings on … Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 16. Browse more videos. Cheka in British English. According to Louise Bryant,  Dzerzhinsky adored Lenin and was “shy, aloof and deeply puritanical” – but he was also ruthless and dispassionate, hardened by years of abuse and persecution. Michael Kort. The Cheka [1] was the first Soviet state security organization. The existence and activities of the CHEKA were widely known and many of its operations were conducted openly and publicly. In Voronezh, they rolled their naked victims in nail-studded barrels. For example, President Vladimir Putin has been referred to in the Russian media as a "chekist" due to his career in the KGB. Between 1918 and 1920, the Cheka ballooned from a couple of hundred investigators to a bureaucratic and paramilitary behemoth containing more than 100,000 agents. On receiving the decree, Dzerzhinsky began recruiting Cheka agents. In 1918, CHEKA agents appeared in the audience of a Moscow circus and began shooting after one of its clowns, Bim Bom, made fun of the Bolsheviks and their leaders. This was sometimes done publicly, in order to provide a deterrent to those who might oppose the regime. It was created on 20 December 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin. How do you use Cheka in a sentence? It was created on 20 December 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin.Its first leader was Polish aristocrat-turned-communist Felix Dzerzhinsky.. History. Date accessed: January 22, 2021 In Kiev, they affixed a cage with rats to the victim’s torso and heated it so that the enraged rats ate their way through the victim’s guts in an effort to escape. It was formed by Vladimir Lenin in a December 1917 decree and charged with identifying and dealing with potential counter-revolutionaries. Like most significant aspects of the new regime, the Cheka began with a decree from Vladimir Lenin and the Sovnarkom, dated December 19th 1917. The Cheka was created on December 20, 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin, and was subsequently led by aristocrat-turned-communist Felix Dzerzhinsky. Early Buddhist texts and modern translations. Some Cheka killings were carried out more for public effect than any political purpose. In 1918, the Cheka came into conflict with the Commissariat of Justice, which demanded to be notified before the arrest of suspects. Cheka bezeichnet: Cheka-Kloster (tib. Cheka definition, (in the Soviet Union) the state secret-police organization (1917–22), succeeded by the GPU. Chekist; Translations Its members were called Chekists well into the late 1980s. In 1918 its name was changed, becoming "All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution, Profiteer… Cheka translation in English-Swedish dictionary. Word:* Part of speech: Definition:* Sample sentence: All definitions are approved by humans before publishing. the secret police set up in 1917 by the Bolshevik government: reorganized in the Soviet Union in Dec 1922 as the GPU. URL: https://alphahistory.com/russianrevolution/cheka/ 3. Garb Slang. The Tsaritsyn Cheka sawed its victims’ bones in half. Some historians suggest that 200,000 or more are more realistic figures. Official figures have of course disappeared, but a conservative estimate states that between 1917 and 1923 at least 200,000 ‘dissidents’ were shot by the Cheka in labour camps, while another 300,000 died in the suppression of working-class movements, strikes and mutinies. Lenin subsequently altered Soviet regulations so that the Cheka was required to notify the Commissariat of an arrest or execution after after it had happened, rather than before. The Cheka was not accountable to judges or courts and there was no legal oversight of its operations. WeTscheKa ist die Abkürzung für die Außerordentliche Allrussische Kommission zur Bekämpfung von Konterrevolution, Spekulation und Sabotage, die nach der Oktoberrevolution am 20. A historian’s view: Citation information Cheka definition by Urban Dictionary. He was a most unlikely radical – yet by the mid-1890s, Dzerzhinsky was involved in Marxist political groups in the Baltic. Lenin preferred to leave the Cheka’s operational details and methods to the man he chose to lead it: Felix Dzerzhinksy. It acted of its own accord, investigated and arrested whoever it chose and answered to no one. 'chad kha dgon), Kloster in Tibet; Ntabo Ntambui Cheka, Milizenführer im Kongo; Cheka (Cajuata), Ortschaft im Municipio Cajuata, Bolivien; Dies ist eine Begriffsklärungsseite zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wort bezeichneter Begriffe. It contains 179,175 words in 288 pages and was updated on October 10th 2020. Plural Chekas can be found in Google Books. Alexander Solzhenitsyn writes that some Cheka victims were force-fed large amounts of salted fish – but were prevented from drinking water. It was created on December 20, 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin, and was subsequently led by aristocrat-turned-communist Felix Dzerzhinsky. Derived terms . Publisher: Alpha History The first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations, created in 1917. Its first leader was Felix Dzerzhinsky. CHEKA agents also developed inventive but ghastly means of torture and psychological torment. [2], By late 1918, hundreds of Cheka committees had been created in the cities. The Cheka’s directive was to “persecute and break up all acts of counter-revolution and sabotage all over Russia, no matter what their origin”, to “bring before the Revolutionary Tribunal all counter-revolutionaries and saboteurs and to work out a plan for fighting them”, and to “make preliminary investigation only, enough to break up [counter-revolutionary acts]”. Report. Chekists operated as investigators, arresting authorities, interrogators, prosecutors, judges, juries and executioners. Cheka. Dzerzhinsky neither denied nor retreated from the Cheka’s brutal role, declaring that “we stand for organised terror, terror being absolutely indispensable in the current revolutionary conditions”. cheka . The Cheka became the embodiment of Dzerzhinsky’s ruthlessness. Each local Cheka had its own speciality. It wis creatit on December 20, 1917, efter a decree issued bi Vladimir Lenin, an wis subsequently led bi Felix Dzerzhinsky, a Pols aristocrat turned communist. Dezember 1917 gegründete Staatssicherheit Sowjetrusslands, auf deren Tradition sich die politische Polizei der Ende 1922 gegründeten Sowjetunion berief. Dzerzhinksy had devoted his life to the Bolshevik cause. Freebase (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition: Cheka. These troops policed and ran the Gulag system; "requisitioned" food; tortured and executed political opponents; put down rebellions and riots by workers or peasants, and mutinies in the desertion-plagued Red Army.[5]. Title: “The Cheka” This page was last changed on 19 January 2021, at 21:09. 1. Though Cheka agents had no standard uniform, many wore long leather coats and could be easily identified. He also organised Cheka paramilitary units. Given a virtual blank cheque, Dzerzhinsky ordered the recruitment of thousands of new agents. Search Results for CHEKA Meaning of CHEKA by its letters. “One feels he can neither understand nor forgive moral weaknesses in others, since he himself possesses that fanatical devotion which has made it possible for him to travel the hard, bitter road where his ideals lead”, Bryant wrote. By the autumn of 1918, these units numbered 33 battalions and more than 20,000 men. Cookies help us deliver our services. translation and definition "cheka", Swahili-English Dictionary online. Any promotional content will be deleted. Cheka definition in English dictionary, Cheka meaning, synonyms, see also 'Chekiang',ChE',cheap',cheat'. Many thousands of dissidents, deserters, or other people were arrested, tortured or executed by Cheka groups. Another 600 bureaucrats were executed for “economic crimes”, mostly taking bribes. Equinox 16:36, 8 November 2015 (UTC) The Cheka was the first Soviet state security organization. The name ‘Cheka’ was an abbreviated form of Chrezvychainaia Komissiia, the Russian for ‘Extraordinary Commission’. Russian (ˈtʃɛka) noun. Within two years it had more than 100,000 employees. From that point, the Cheka was never restricted by the rule of law or any obligation to due process or the rights of suspects. In Odessa, they chained their victims to planks and pushed them slowly into a furnace or a tank of boiling water. In Armavir, they crushed their skulls by tightening a leather strap with an iron bolt around their head. Atlas » Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. A member of Cheka was called a "chekist" throughout the Soviet period, despite various official name changes. It was to be the “sword and shield of the revolution”, defending the new regime against its enemies within. The astonishing understanding of individuals, avoiding long conversations also undermines these. 5 years ago | 39 views. How to use history in a sentence. The first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations, created in 1917. (pronoun) In 1921 the troops of the Cheka numbered 200,000. The Cheka routinely used extra-legal violence and torture. Link to this page: Add or improve a definition. More significantly, the Cheka operated outside the rule of law. In Kharkov, they went in for the ‘glove trick’ – burning the victim’s hands in boiling water until the blistered skin could be peeled off: this left the victims with raw and bleeding hands and their torturers with ‘human gloves’. 5. After 1922, Cheka groups underwent many reorganizations, as did the NKVD. Definition funny of Cheka: In the Soviet Union, the state secret-police organization (1917–22), succeeded by the GPU. By early March 1918, there were only 120 Chekists (Cheka agents). Cheka meaning and pronunciation. During its four year lifespan, the Cheka carried out arrests, interrogations, executions and campaigns entirely of its own accord. For more information, visit our FAQ page or Terms of Use. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. The Cheka was formed in the wake of the October 1917 revolution, as a small agency to investigate and deal with threats to the new regime. By late 1918, hundreds of Cheka committees had been created in the cities. The Cheka is often described as the ‘Bolshevik secret police’. By late 1918, hundreds of Cheka committees had been created in various cities, at multiple levels including: oblast, guberniya, raion, … Many thousands of dissidents, deserters, or other people were arrested, tortured or executed by Cheka groups. 4. Cheka rate (Abbreviation) (Formed: 1917; dissolved/reorganized: 1922.) It is not willing to take care of some subtle themes and … Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary The first Communist-government secret-police organization. The Cheka (sometimes called VeCheka) was the much-feared Bolshevik security agency, formed to identify and eradicate counter-revolutionary activity. Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1907-1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1917, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1918-1924, Russian Revolution memory quiz – revolutionaries, Russian Revolution memory quiz – tsarists, Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (I), Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (II), Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1906 to 1913, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1914 to 1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events to 1905. Another example of this public gesturing was Lenin’s famous order to the Penza Cheka to hang at least 100 men, “and make sure that the hanging takes place in full view of the people”. Playing next. This Russian Revolution site contains articles, sources and perspectives on events in Russia between 1891 and 1927. What is the meaning of Cheka? [3] After 1922, Cheka groups underwent many reorganizations, as did the NKVD. Follow. The Cheka was the Bolshevik security force or secret police. The Cheka grows. [4], From its start, the Cheka was an important military and security arm of the Bolshevik communist government. What is the definition of Cheka? By late 1918, hundreds of Cheka committees had been created in the cities. Copy to clipboard; Details / edit; omegawiki. Among the targets of the Cheka were Russian nationalists who objected strongly… Initially very small with just a couple of hundred agents, the Cheka grew rapidly during the turmoil and growing opposition of 1918. He chose Bolsheviks he could trust for the difficult task of securing the revolution, men who were neither corruptible nor squeamish. The Cheka (sometimes called VeCheka) was the much-feared Bolshevik security agency, formed to identify and eradicate counter-revolutionary activity. The Cheka now outdid itself in cruelty by setting up forced labour camps entirely under its control. A favourite winter torture was to pour water on the naked victims until they became living ice statues. Dzerzhinsky’s incorruptible fanaticism and hard-heartedness earned him the epithets ‘Iron Felix’ and the ‘Iron Count’. A small force of just a few hundred men in early 1918, within two years the Cheka was one of the largest Soviet agencies, employing around 200,000 people. Dzerzhinsky was technically accountable to the Sovnarkom but only reported Cheka operations after they had taken place. Cheka (ЧК – чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия chrezvychaynaya komissiya, Emergency Committee, Roushie pronunciation: ) wis the first o a succession o Soviet state security organisations. Cheka M. Hier finden Sie Imformationen über die Bedeutung und den Ursprung des afrikanischen Baby-Namens Cheka. According to historian Edward Peters, some of the torture methods employed by the CHEKA included beating, burning, branding and scalping. Cheka was the first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations. While the Cheka’s methods drew on those used by the Okhrana, its size and willingness to use extra-legal killing both surpassed the activities of the Tsarist security police. Dzerzhinksy spent more than a decade in prisons and labour camps before his release during the 1917 amnesty. Bedeutung von Cheka: Bedeutung unbekannt: Cheka Ursprung: afrikanisch: Cheka in Wiki Encyclopedia: Wikipedia: Google: Suche Cheka bei Google : Barcode-Generator: Ähnliche Namen wie Cheka Cherethims Chepe … Copyright: The content on this page may not be republished without our express permission. All this was purposely done: to show Russians that the CHEKA was everywhere and dealt swiftly with those who betrayed or opposed the Bolshevik regime. The Cheka was headed by Feliz Dzerzhinsky, a Bolshevik of Polish extraction. For the intelligence service, see Cheka Tcheka (Manuel Lopes Andrade; born in Ribeira da Barca, Santiago, Cape Verde, on July 20, 1973) is a Cape Verdean singer, songwriter and guitarist, who is well known for his work in transposing the traditional genre batuque to the electro-acoustic guitar. CHEKA acronym or abbreviation means: C: Meaning of C in CHEKA. In doing so, driven by revolutionary fervour and unrestrained by law, by 1922 the Cheka had penetrated virtually every area of life in Soviet Russia. Some of the more ghastly Cheka methods are described by historian Orlando Figes in his book A People’s Tragedy: The ingenuity of the Cheka’s torture methods was matched only by the Spanish Inquisition. In the Soviet Union, the state secret-police organization (1917–22), succeeded by the GPU. In reality, not all of its operations were secretive or concealed. It hunted down speculators and hoarders, sometimes cordoning off entire neighbourhoods during its massive operations. He eventually joined Lenin’s Bolshevik faction in 1906. Authors: Jennifer Llewellyn, Michael McConnell, Steve Thompson [7], From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, "Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary", "A Stalin slip and Putin trick | Opinion", https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cheka&oldid=7295660, Articles containing Russian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Does it refer to individual members of the Cheka? checa translation in Spanish - English Reverso dictionary, see also 'checar',chueca',Ceca',chechear', examples, definition, conjugation Increases in anti-Bolshevik activity, the onset of the Civil War, the failed Left SR uprising of July 1918 and the assassination attempt on Lenin the following month saw the ranks of the Cheka grow exponentially. Welche Bedeutung hat der Name Cheka und welcher Herkunft ist er? 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